The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you can discover a. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Why Gotland? Jonathan Shepard PART I: COGS AND DRIVERS2. Reading between the lines: Tracking slaves and slavery in the early middle ages David.
Carolingian-Ottonian disc brooches: early Christian symbols in Viking age DenmarkWhy Gotland? Jonathan Shepard PART I: COGS AND DRIVERS2. Reading between the lines: Tracking slaves and slavery in the early middle ages David. The Viking Age Expansion adds several new scenarios, game components, mechanics, and victory conditions to Vikings, including Christian Churches. Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren.
Viking Age Who Were the Vikings? VideoThe Viking Age: Every Year Hymir jedoch erschrickt sich beim Anblick der Schlange und zerschneidet die Fangleine, so dass ihr die Flucht gelingt. Jörmungandr in turn, who had also become somewhat dangerous to the gods was tossed into Betslip sea Las Vegas Buffet Odin. Da der Fenriswolf den Göttern in Asgard zu kräftig wird, ersinnen sie eine List, um ihn binden zu können.
Deshalb ist es Wettquoten Deutschland Polen, die bereits Wettquoten Deutschland Polen behalten wollen. - DSpace Repositorium (Manakin basiert)The line, however, remains Goldnuss in Shintaro Miyake's work, as the long, flowing limbs of his figures may clearly illustrate.
The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour—probably both wheat and rye —but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.
Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.
Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.
The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings.
This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.
In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed.
Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.
King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.
Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.
Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.
Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.
A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.
The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries. Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.
Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.
The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.
Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.
The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl nine men's morris and the less common kvatrutafl. Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age.
Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.
It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls. The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.
On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.
The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.
The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord.
Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.
The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.
The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev have been built and tested as well.
Elements of a Scandinavian identity and practices were maintained in settler societies, but they could be quite distinct as the groups assimilated into the neighboring societies.
Assimilation to the Frankish culture in Normandy for example was rapid. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.
According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. These arms indicated a Viking's social status: a wealthy Viking had a complete ensemble of a helmet , shield , mail shirt, and sword.
However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items. Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.
Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.
Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria ,  or large amounts of alcohol.
The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia.
Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight of precious metals.
Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.
A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.
The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.
To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. These goods included: .
Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.
Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone. Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery.
Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland.
Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.
Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.
Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.
They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.
The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.
Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.
Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.
The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.
Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.
Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.
These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.
Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.
Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.
During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.
The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking. Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.
The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.
Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.
In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.
Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.
The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.
The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.
In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.
The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.
The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.
Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.
Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.
They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.
These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.
Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.
The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants.
Another raid was attempted in , without success. They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows.
Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years.
The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.
The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms.
Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.
The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.
The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.
The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.
The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. Chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture.
This slant was accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves.
Little documentary evidence was available until later, when Christian sources began to contribute. As historians and archaeologists have developed more resources to challenge the one-sided descriptions of the chroniclers, a more balanced picture of the Norsemen has become apparent.
The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle. They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly before a counter-offensive could be launched.
Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers.
The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes.
This led to a lesser quality of ships. While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.
When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets.
While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents. When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.
The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.
A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.
In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids.
Changes in shipbuilding in the rest of Europe led to the demise of the longship for military purposes.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.
The nautical achievements of the Vikings were exceptional. For instance, they made distance tables for sea voyages that were remarkably precise.
The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope. It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century.
An archaeological find in Sweden consists of a bone fragment fixated with in-operated material; the piece is as yet undated. These bones might be the remains of a trader from the Middle East.
This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? Eventually, opposing armies saw the advantages of this weapon, and they began arming themselves with similar armament the Dane axe also came to be known as the English long axe.
The Dane axe was designed to be wielded with two hands, and its head was forged from thin but strong metal, resulting in a surprisingly lightweight weapon that could be swung with a great amount of control.
Still, it was perfectly capable of delivering a fatal wound with a single blow from its razor-sharp edge. First and foremost, with its elongated edge that dropped down well below the butt or poll, a bearded axe presented a longer cutting edge as measured from toe to heel.
In the hands of a capable Viking warrior it could also be wielded single-handed , it could slice, slash, and chop with deadly force. The unique beard design also served a defensive purpose.
As the most affordable and functional implement around, virtually every Viking male except for slaves owned an axe.
Aside from being a highly effective weapon for the Viking style of combat, axes served other purposes that were equally vital to the Viking way of life:.
The feet of the Great Beast standing next to the door gracefully end in wisps that rest between delicate vegetal motifs.
Although the structure is Christian in function, these decorative forms remain indebted to pre-Christian styles. Urnes-styled objects appear in the Baltic, and examples such as the Pitney Brooch demonstrate a localized adaptation of it in England.
In Ireland, the Norse re-occupation of Dublin fueled artistic interest in the Urnes style, with metal and stone objects exhibiting its features. When looking at gold filigree ornamenting the bell shrine of St.
Patrick, for example, precisely-crafted patterns demonstrate interest in geometry and rhythmic compositions.
Prior to the 10th century, Scandinavian regions were considered peripheral to western Europe. It was from the 10th through the 13th centuries that the introduction of Christianity and the introduction of European-style monarchy eventually brought the Viking Age to a close.
The Ringerike and Urnes styles described above flourished through this time, until the European Romanesque style was popularized, displacing pagan traditions.
There is much more to Norse art than style. While objects were made by skilled workers, they were also situated within a complex society whose endeavors affected a vast geographic expanse.
Those discussed here provide only a small window into the Viking Age. November 3rd Paul D. December 28 Nancy L.
David M. The Norse visual world The visual world was of great importance to the Norse. The styles of Viking Art Many objects served practical and symbolic purposes and their complex decorative patterns can be a challenge to untangle.
Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland. Around A. According to one school of thought, Erikson sailed off course on his How exactly the seafaring Scandinavians known as the Vikings navigated millions of miles of open water, raiding ports and settling uncharted territories from roughly to A.
Archaeological evidence suggests they traveled with The epic voyages of the Vikings to the British Isles, Iceland, North America and points west tend to obscure the fact that the Scandinavian warriors also ventured far to the east across Europe and parts of Asia.
While the Danes and Norwegians sailed west, Swedish fighters and John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.
Though the exact details of his life and expeditions are the These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island Lindisfarne , by rapine and slaughter.
In , according to the Annals of Ulster , a serious attack was made on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona , which was followed in by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland.
The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly devastated by these raiders, who could sail up the Seine with near impunity.
Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons , a string of Norse raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.
The clinker -built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters. They extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders, and settlers along coastlines and along the major river valleys of north-western Europe.
Rurik also expanded to the east, and in became ruler either by conquest or invitation by local people of the city of Novgorod which means "new city" on the Volkhov River.
His successors moved further, founding the early East Slavic state of Kievan Rus' with the capital in Kiev. This persisted until , when the Mongols invaded Russia.
Other Norse people continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople. Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings reportedly turned them on their sides and dragged them across the shallows into deeper waters.
In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.
In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.
Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman, but also carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in In Scandinavia, the Viking Age is considered to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion.
The end of the Viking era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.
In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung c. Norse beliefs persisted until the 12th century. Olof being the last king in Scandinavia to adopt a Christianity marked a definite end to the Viking Age.
Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the 13th and the 15th centuries; the Western Isles and the Isle of Man remained under Scandinavian authority until Orkney and Shetland belonged to the king of Norway as late as According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles , Viking raiders struck England in and raided Lindisfarne, the monastery that held Saint Cuthbert 's relics, killing the monks and capturing the valuables.
The raid marked the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion". Great but sporadic violence continued on England's northern and eastern shores, with raids continuing on a small scale across coastal England.
While the initial raiding groups were small, a great amount of planning is believed to have been involved. The Vikings raided during the winter of —, rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland.
In , they overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent. In , a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary.
In , they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing a Viking community in Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.
Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In , Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the Ragnarsson brothers, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.
Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.
On 8 January , Bagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.
Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. In , the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard started a series of raids against England, culminating in a full-scale invasion that led to Sweyn being crowned king of England in Sweyn's son, Cnut the Great , won the throne of England in through conquest.
The Viking presence declined until , when they lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge. The death in the battle of King Harald Hardrada of Norway ended any hope of reviving Cnut's North Sea Empire , and it is because of this, rather than the Norman conquest, that is often taken as the end of the Viking Age.
Nineteen days later, a large army containing and led by senior Normans, themselves mostly male-line descendants of Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.
The army invited others from across Norman gentry and ecclesiastical society to join them. In , small bands of Vikings began plundering monastic settlements along the coast of Gaelic Ireland.
The Annals of Ulster state that in the Vikings plundered Howth and "carried off a great number of women into captivity".
The first were at Dublin and Linn Duachaill. The Vikings also briefly allied with various Irish kings against their rivals. They were important trading hubs, and Viking Dublin was the biggest slave port in western Europe.
These Viking territories became part of the patchwork of kingdoms in Ireland. Vikings intermarried with the Irish and adopted elements of Irish culture, becoming the Norse-Gaels.
Sigtrygg Silkbeard was "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator" who established Ireland's first mint , in Dublin.
The Dublin Vikings, together with Leinster , twice rebelled against him, but they were defeated in the battles of Glenmama and Clontarf After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".
While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne , Northumbria.
In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.
After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.
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